Social information technologies to counter infodemics CREST Research area : Core technologies for trusted quality AI systems

Achievements

Refereed journal papers | Refereed conference papers | Preprints | Books, book chapters, and research reports | Invited talks | Oral Presentation, Poster・demo | Media coverage(Press release/ News release) | Media coverage(Online articles) | Media coverage(TV / Radio) | Media coverage(Newspapers) | Media coverage(Others) | Patents | Awards | Others

Refereed journal papers

  1. Piyush Ghasiya and Kazutoshi Sasahara, "Rapid Sharing of Islamophobic Hate on Facebook: The Case of the Tablighi Jamaat Controversy", Social Media + Society (2022), Link
  2. Hitoshi Kiya, Ryota Iijima, MaungMaung Aprilpyone, Yuma Kinoshita, "Image and Model Transformation with Secret Key for Vision Transformer", IEICE Trans. Inf. & Sys., March, 2023 (Invited), Preprint
  3. Jialiang Shi, Piyush Ghasiya and Kazutoshi Sasahara, "Psycho-linguistic Differences among Competing Vaccination Communities on Social Media", APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing: Vol.11, No.1, e15, June 2022, Link
  4. Wentao Xu and Kazutoshi Sasahara, "A Network-Based Approach to QAnon User Dynamics and Topic Diversity During the COVID-19 Infodemic", APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing, Vol.11, No.1, e17, June 2022, Link
  5. Hiroki Ito, AprilPyone MaungMaung, Sayaka Shiota, and Hitoshi Kiya, "Access Control of Semantic Segmentation Models Using Encrypted Feature Maps", APSIPA TSIP, accepted, 2022, Preprint
  6. AprilPyone MaungMaung, Hitoshi Kiya, "Privacy-Preserving Image Classification Using Isotropic Network", IEEE MultiMedia, accepted, April 2022, Preprint
  7. Huy H. Nguyen, Sébastien Marcel, Junichi Yamagishi. Isao Echizen, "Master Face Attacks on Face Recognition Systems", IEEE TBIOM, accepted, April 2022, Link
  8. Asad Malik, Minoru Kuribayashi, Sani M. Abdullahi, Ahmad Neyaz Khan, "DeepFake Detection for Human Face Images and Videos: A Survey", IEEE Access, vol.10, pp.18757-18775, 2022, Link
  9. Hitoshi Kiya, AprilPyone MaungMaung, Yuma Kinoshita, Imaizumi Shoko, Sayaka Shiota, "An Overview of Compressible and Learnable Image Transformation with Secret Key and Its Applications", APSIPA Transactions, accepted, 2022, Preprint
  10. Huy H. Nguyen, Minoru Kuribayashi, Junichi Yamagishi, Isao Echizen, "Effects of Image Processing Operations on Adversarial Noise and Their Application to Detecting and Correcting Adversarial Images," IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst., vol.E105-D, no.1, 2022.
  11. Trung-Nghia Le, Yubo Cao, Tan-Cong Nguyen, Minh-Quan Le, Khanh-Duy Nguyen, Thanh-Toan Do, Minh-Triet Tran, Tam V. Nguyen, "Camouflaged Instance Segmentation In-The-Wild: Dataset, Method, and Benchmark Suite", IEEE Transactions on Image Processing (T-IP), accepted, 2021, Preprint
  12. Xu Wentao and Kazutoshi Sasahara, "Characterizing the roles of bots on Twitter during the COVID-19 infodemic", Journal of Computational Social Science, accepted, 2021, Preprint, Link
  13. Sisheng Chen, Ching-Chun Chang, and Isao Echizen, "Steganographic Secret Sharing with GAN-Based Face Synthesis and Morphing for Trustworthy Authentication in IoT," IEEE Access, accepted, 2021, Link
  14. Thach V. Bui, Mahdi Cheraghchi, and Isao Echizen, "Improved non-adaptive algorithms for threshold group testing with a gap", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, accepted, 2021, Link
  15. April Pyone MAUNG MAUNG, Hitoshi KIYA, "A protection method of trained CNN model with a secret key from unauthorized access", APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing, Vol.10, July 2021, Link
  16. Akiko Matsuo, Baofa Du and Kazutoshi Sasahara, "Appraisals of Fairness moral foundation predicts the language use involving moral issues on Twitter among Japanese", Frontiers in Psychology, accepted, 2021
  17. April Pyone MAUNG MAUNG, Hitoshi KIYA, "Block-wise Image Transformation with Secret Key for Adversarially Robust Defense" IEEE Trans. on Information Forensics and Security, in press, March 2021, Link
  18. Mahdi Khosravy, Kazuaki Nakamura, Yuki Hirose, Naoko Nitta, Noboru Babaguchi, "Model Inversion Attack: Analysis under Gray-box Scenario on Deep Learning based Face Recognition System", KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, Vol.15, No.3, pp.1100-1118, March 2021, Link

Refereed conference papers

  1. Futa Waseda, Sosuke Nishikawa, Trung-Nghia Le, Huy H. Nguyen, and Isao Echizen, "Closer Look at the Transferability of Adversarial Examples: How They Fool Different Models Differently," IEEE/CVF Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV 2023) , January 2023, Preprint
  2. Huy H. Nguyen, Trung-Nghia Le, Junichi Yamagishi, and Isao Echizen, "Analysis of Master Vein Attacks on Finger Vein Recognition Systems," IEEE/CVF Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV 2023), January 2023, Preprint
  3. K. Tsunomori, Y. Yamasaki, M. Kuribayashi, N. Funabiki, I. Echizen, "Detection and Correction of Adversarial Examples Based on JPEG-Compression-Derived Distortion," Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference (APSIPA ASC 2022), November 2022
  4. Ryota Iijima, Miki Tanaka, Isao Echizen, and Hitoshi Kiya, "On the Adversarial Transferability of ConvMixer Models", APSIPA ASC 2022, Novemver 2022, Preprint
  5. Miki Tanaka, Isao Echizen, Hitoshi Kiya, "On the Transferability of Adversarial Examples between Encrypted Models", IEEE ISPACS 2022, Novemver 2022, Preprint
  6. Ryota Iijima, Hitoshi Kiya, "An Encryption Method of ConvMixer Models without Performance Degradation", the International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics 2022 (ICMLC 2022), September 2022, Preprint
  7. Sosuke Nishikawa, Ikuya Yamada, Yoshimasa Tsuruoka, Isao Echizen, "A Multilingual Bag-of-Entities Model for Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Text Classification", The SIGNLL Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL 2022), December 2022, Preprint
  8. Trung-Nghia Le, Ta Gu, Huy H. Nguyen, Isao Echizen, "Rethinking Adversarial Examples for Location Privacy Protection", IEEE International Workshop on Information Forensics and Security, 2022 (WIFS 2022), December 2022, Preprint
  9. Minh-Quan Le, Trung-Nghia Le, Tam V. Nguyen, Isao Echizen, Minh-Triet Tran, "GUNNEL: Guided Mixup Augmentation and Multi-View Fusion for Aquatic Animal Segmentation", CV4Animal Workshop, CVPR 2022, June 2022, Preprint, Poster
  10. Canasai Kruengkrai, Junichi Yamagishi “Mitigating the Diminishing Effect of Elastic Weight Consolidation” COLING 2022, accepted, Oct 2022
  11. Chang Zeng, Lin Zhang, Meng Liu, Junichi Yamagishi “Spoofing-Aware Attention based ASV Back-end with Multiple Enrollment Utterances and a Sampling Strategy for the SASV Challenge 2022" Interspeech 2022, accepted, Sept 2022, Preprint
  12. Chang Zeng, Xin Wang, Erica Cooper, Xiaoxiao Miao, Junichi Yamagishi “Attention Back-end for Automatic Speaker Verification with Multiple Enrollment Utterances” ICASSP 2022, May 2022, Link
  13. K. Miyazaki, T. Uchiba, K. Tanaka, J. An, H. Kwak, and K. Sasahara, “This is Fake News”: Characterizing the Spontaneous Debunking from Twitter Users to COVID-19 False Information, ICWSM 2023 (International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media) Preprint
  14. Zheng Qi, AprilPyone MaungMaung, Yuma Kinoshita and Hitoshi Kiya, "Privacy-Preserving Image Classification Using Vision Transformer", EUSIPCO2022, accepted, August 2022, Preprint
  15. Sosuke Nishikawa, Ryokan Ri, Ikuya Yamada, Yoshimasa Tsuruoka and Isao Echizen, "EASE: Entity-Aware Contrastive Learning of Sentence Embedding." NAACL 2022, accepted, July 2022 , Preprint
  16. Yusuke Hirota, Yuta Nakashima, Noa Garcia, "Gender and Racial Bias in Visual Question Answering Datasets", Proc. ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (FAccT) 2022, accepted, June 2022
  17. Kunihiro Miyazaki, Takayuki Uchiba, Kenji Tanaka, Kazutoshi Sasahara, "Characterizing the Anti-Vaxxers’ Reply Behavior on Social Media", WI-IAT '21, December 2021 Link
  18. Riku Togashi, Mayu Otani, Yuta Nakashima, Esa Rahtu, Janne Heikkila, Tetsuya Sakai, "AxIoU: An Axiomatically Justified Measure for Video Moment Retrieval", Proc. IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, accepted, June 2022
  19. Mayu Otani, Riku Togashi, Yuta Nakashima, Esa Rahtu, Janne Heikkila, and Shin'ichi Satoh, "Optimal Correction Cost for Object Detection Evaluation", Proc. IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, accepted, June 2022
  20. Yusuke Hirota, Yuta Nakashima, and Noa Garcia, "Quantifying Societal Bias Amplification in Image Captioning", Proc. IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, accepted, June 2022
  21. Dilrukshi Gamage, Piyush Ghasiya, Vamshi Krishna Bonagiri, Mark E. Whiting, and Kazutoshi Sasahara, "Are deepfakes concerning? Exploring societal implications of deepfake conversations in Reddit", CHI 2022, accepted, May 2022, Link
  22. Khanh-Duy Nguyen, Huy H. Nguyen, Trung-Nghia Le, Junichi Yamagishi, Isao Echizen, "Effectiveness of Detection-based and Regression-based Approaches for Estimating Mask-Wearing Ratio," The International Workshop on Face and Gesture Analysis for COVID-19 (FG4COVID19) held in conjunction with FG 2021, December, 2021, preprint, dataset
  23. D. Takeshita, M. Kuribayashi, N. Funabiki, "A study of feature extraction suitable for double JPEG compression analysis based on statistical bias observation of DCT coefficients", APSIPA ASC 2021, December 2021
  24. K. Nakai, M. Kuribayashi, N. Funabiki, "A study of privacy protection of photos taken by wide-angle surveillance camera", APSIPA ASC 2021, December 2021
  25. Y. Yamasaki, M. Kuribayashi, N. Funabiki, H. Nguyen, and I. Echizen, "A Study of Feature Extraction Based on Denoising Auto Encoder for Classification of Adversarial Examples," APSIPA ASC 2021, December 2021
  26. MaungMaung AprilPyone, Hitoshi Kiya, "A Protection Method of Trained CNN Model Using Feature Maps Transformed With Secret Key From Unauthorized Access", APSIPA ASC 2021, December 2021, Preprint
  27. Dilrukshi Gamage, Jiayu Chen, and Kazutoshi Sasahara, "The Emergence of Deepfakes and its Societal Implications: A Systematic Review", Conference for Truth and Trust Online, October 2021
  28. Sosuke Nishikawa, Ikuya Yamada, Yoshimasa Tsuruoka, Isao Echizen, "A Multilingual Bag-of-Entities Model forZero-Shot Cross-Lingual Text Classification", ACL-IJCNLP 2021 Student Research Workshop (non-archival option), 2021, Link
  29. Liangzhi Li, Bowen Wang, Manisha Verma, Yuta Nakashima, Ryo Kawasaki, Hajime Nagahara, “SCOUTER: Slot Attention-based Classifier for Explainable Image Recognition” ICCV 2021, accepted, October 2021, Preprint, code
  30. Trung-Nghia Le, Huy H. Nguyen, Junichi Yamagishi, Isao Echizen, "OpenForensics: Large-Scale Challenging Dataset For Multi-Face Forgery Detection And Segmentation In-The-Wild" ICCV 2021, accepted, October 2021, Preprint, presentation video, dataset
  31. April Pyone MAUNG MAUNG, Hitoshi KIYA, "TRANSFER LEARNING-BASED MODEL PROTECTION WITH SECRET KEY,", IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, accepted, September 2021
  32. Canasai Kruengkrai, Xin Wang, Junichi Yamagishi, "A Multi-Level Attention Model for Evidence-Based Fact Checking", Findings of ACL2021, accepted, August 2021, Preprint, code
  33. M. Kuribayashi, T. Tanaka, S. Suzuki, T. Yasui, Nobuo Funabiki, "White-box watermarking scheme for fully-connected layers in fine-tuning model," 9th ACM Workshop on Information Hiding and Multimedia Security (IH&MMSec'21), accepted, June 2021.
  34. April Pyone MAUNG MAUNG, Hitoshi KIYA, "Piracy-Resistant DNN Watermarking by Block-Wise Image Transformation with Secret Key," ACM Workshop on Information Hiding and Multimedia Security 22th, accepted, June 2021.
  35. Marc Treu, Trung-Nghia Le, Huy H. Nguyen, Junichi Yamagishi, Isao Echizen, "Fashion-Guided Adversarial Attack on Person Segmentation", Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition WORKSHOP ON MEDIA FORENSICS 2021, accepted, June 2021, Preprint, Presentation Video, code/dataset
  36. Harkeerat Kaur, Rohit Kumar, and Isao Echizen, "Reinforcement Learning based Smart Data Agent for Location Privacy", The 35th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA-2021), accepted, May 2021
  37. Sota Kawakami, Kei Okada, Naoko Nitta, Kazuaki Nakamura, Noboru Babaguchi, "Semi-supervised outdoor image generation conditioned on weather signals", Proc. of 25th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR2020), January 2021
  38. A. Higashi, M. Kuribayashi, N. Funabiki, H. Nguyen, I. Echizen, "Detection of adversarial examples based on sensitivities to noise removal filter", Proceedings of 2020 Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association Anual Sumit and Confonference (APSIPA ASC 2020), December 2020

Preprints

  1. Lin Zhang, Xin Wang, Erica Cooper, Nicholas Evans, Junichi Yamagishi, "The PartialSpoof Database and Countermeasures for the Detection of Short Generated Audio Segments Embedded in a Speech Utterance", Submitted to IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio Speech and Language Processing, April 2022, Preprint
  2. Xiaoxiao Miao, Xin Wang, Erica Cooper, Junichi Yamagishi, Natalia Tomashenko, "Analyzing Language-Independent Speaker Anonymization Framework under Unseen Conditions", March 2022, Preprint
  3. Xin Wang, Junich Yamagishi, "Investigating Active-learning-based Training Data Selection for Speech Spoofing Countermeasure", March 2022, Preprint
  4. Wen-Chin Huang, Erica Cooper, Yu Tsao, Hsin-Min Wang, Tomoki Toda, Junichi Yamagishi, "The VoiceMOS Challenge 2022", March 2022, Preprint
  5. K. Miyazaki, T. Uchiba, K. Tanaka, and K. Sasahara, "Aggressive behaviour of anti-vaxxers and their toxic replies in English and Japanese", January 2022, Preprint
  6. Futa Waseda, Sosuke Nishikawa, Trung-Nghia Le, Huy H. Nguyen, Isao Echizen, "Closer Look at the Transferability of Adversarial Examples: How They Fool Different Models Differently", December 2021, Preprint
  7. Minh-Quan Le, Trung-Nghia Le, Tam V. Nguyen, Isao Echizen, Minh-Triet Tran, "Multimodal-based Scene-Aware Framework for Aquatic Animal Segmentation", December 2021, Preprint
  8. Jialiang Shi, Piyush Ghasiya, Kazutoshi Sasahara, "Psycho-linguistic differences among competing vaccination communities on social media", Novemver 2021, Preprint
  9. Wentao Xu, Kazutoshi Sasahara, "A network-based approach to QAnon user dynamics during COVID-19 infodemic", October 2021, Preprint
  10. Sosuke Nishikawa, Ikuya Yamada, Yoshimasa Tsuruoka, Isao Echizen, "A Multilingual Bag-of-Entities Model for Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Text Classification", October 2021, Preprint

Books, book chapters, and research reports


    Frontiers in Fake Media Generation and Detection (M. Khosravy, I. Echizen, and N. Babaguchi, eds.)
     
    1. Kazuaki Nakamura, Yuto Mori, Naoko Nitta, and Noboru Babaguchi, "Recognizer Cloning Attack on Image Recognition Services and Its Defending Method", Book chapter, Frontiers in Fake Media Generation and Detection, Chapter 10, Springer, 2022
    2. Xin Wang and Junichi Yamagishi, "A Practical Guide to Logical Access Voice Presentation Attack Detection", Book chapter, Frontiers in Fake Media Generation and Detection, Chapter 8, Springer, 2022, Link
    3. MaungMaung AprilPyone and Hitoshi Kiya, "Adversarial Defense with Secret Key", Book chapter, Frontiers in Fake Media Generation and Detection, Chapter 7, Springer, 2022
    4. Minoru Kuribayashi, "Defense Against Adversarial Attacks", Book chapter, Frontiers in Fake Media Generation and Detection, Chapter 6, Springer, 2022
    5. Jeongwoo Lim, Masayuki Tamura, Naoko Nitta, Kazuaki Nakamura, and Noboru Babaguchi, "Spoofing Tweet Generator considering Points of Interest of Target User", Book chapter, Frontiers in Fake Media Generation and Detection, Chapter 5, Springer, 2022
    6. Trung-Nghia Le, Huy H Nguyen, Junichi Yamagishi, and Isao Echizen, "Robust Deepfake On Unrestricted Media: Generation And Detection", Book chapter, Frontiers in Fake Media Generation and Detection, Chapter 4, Springer, 2022, Link
    7. Minoru Kuribayashi, "Adversarial Attacks", Book chapter, Frontiers in Fake Media Generation and Detection, Chapter 3, Springer, 2022
    8. MaungMaung AprilPyone, Yuma Kinoshita, and Hitoshi Kiya, Tokyo Metropolitan, "Adversarial Examples and Defenses", Book chapter, Frontiers in Fake Media Generation and Detection, Chapter 2, Springer, 2022
    9. Dilrukshi Gamage, Jiayu Cheny, Piyush Ghasiya, and Kazutoshi Sasahara, "Deepfakes and Society: What lies ahead?", Book chapter, Frontiers in Fake Media Generation and Detection, Chapter 1, Springer, 2022
    10. Mahdi Khosravy, Isao Echizen, Noboru Babaguchi, "Frontiers in Fake Media Generation and Detection", Springer, June 2022, Link
    11. Ruben Tolosana, Christian Rathgeb, Ruben Vera-Rodriguez, Christoph Busch, Luisa Verdoliva, Siwei Lyu, Huy H. Nguyen, Junichi Yamagishi, Isao Echizen, Peter Rot, Klemen Grm, Vitomir Štruc, Antitza Dantcheva, Zahid Akhtar, Sergio Romero-Tapiador, Julian Fierrez, Aythami Morales, Javier Ortega-Garcia, Els Kindt, Catherine Jasserand, Tarmo Kalvet, Marek Tiits, "Future Trends in Digital Face Manipulation and Detection", Book chapter, Handbook of Digital Face Manipulation and Detection, pp.463-482, Springer, 2022
    12. Huy H. Nguyen, Junichi Yamagishi, Isao Echizen, "Capsule-Forensics Networks for Deepfake Detection", Book chapter, Handbook of Digital Face Manipulation and Detection, pp. 275-301, Springer, 2022

    Invited talks

    1. Isao Echizen, "Real or Fake? From Biometric Data Protection to Fake Media Detection", ICSTE 2022, October 2022, Link
    2. Isao Echizen, IEICE English Webinar(Distinguished Lecturer Program Series), October 2022
    3. Isao Echizen, "Real or Fake? Fake Media Generation and Detection", INTERNATIONAL FORUM INTELLIGENCE AUGMENTATION AND AMPLIFICATION PLUS SOCIETY 2022 (IAASOC 2022), July 2022 Link
    4. Isao Echizen, "Real or Fake? From Biometric Data Protection to Fake Media Detection", The 2022 4th International Electronics Communication Conference (IECC 2022), July 2022 <Keynote>
    5. Isao Echizen, "Real or Fake? From Biometric Data Protection to Fake Media Detection", The 2nd International JST-ERCIM Workshop, December 8, 2021, Link
    6. Isao Echizen, "Real or Fake? From Biometric Data Protection to Fake Media Detection", Quarterly Invited Speech at IAPR Computation Forensics Technical Committee (TC6), September 29, 2021, Link
    7. Huy H. Nguyen, "Deepfake Generation and Detection – An Overview", The 27th Symposium on Sensing via Image Information, June 2021, Slides, Presentation Video
    8. Isao Echizen, "Real or Fake? The Future of Biometric Data Protection", EURASIP Journal on Image and Video Processing Webinar, May 2021
    9. M. Kuribayashi, "Adversarial Examples of Deep Learning System and Its Defense", IEEE Computational Intelligence Society Chapter and Ahmedabad University, March 2021
    10. Isao Echizen, "Real or Fake? The Future of Media Security and Privacy", Symposium of Yotta Informatics, Research Platform for Yotta-Scale Data Science 2021, March 2021
    11. Isao Echizen, Junichi Yamagishi, Trung-Nghia Le, and Huy H. Nguyen, "Real or Fake? The Future of Media Security and Privacy", The 7th International Symposium toward the Future of Advanced Researches in Shizuoka University 2021 (ISFAR-SU2021), March 2021
    12. Kazutoshi Sasahara, "Online echo chamber: What is it and how to break out of it?", Eurasian Summit of models for Society 2021, March 2021
    13. Isao Echizen, "Real or Fake? The future of biometric data protection", The 2021 2nd Asia Service Sciences and Software Engineering (ASSE) Conference, February 2021 <Keynote>

    Oral Presentation, Poster・demo

    1. Piyush Ghasiya Kazutoshi Sasahara, "Rapid Sharing of Islamophobic Hate on Facebook: The Case of the Tablighi Jamaat Controversy", IC2S2 2022, accepted, July 2022
    2. Wentao Xu, Kazutoshi Sasahara, "QAnon user dynamics and topical diversity amid the COVID-19 infodemic", IC2S2 2022, accepted, July 2022
    3. Dilrukshi Gamage, Kazutoshi Sasahara, "Analyzing conversations about deepfakes in Reddit and Twitter", IC2S2 2022, accepted, July 2022
    4. Kunihiro Miyazaki, Takayuki Uchiba, Jisun An, Haewoon Kwak, Kazutoshi Sasahara, "Characterizing the Spontaneous Debunking from Twitter Users to COVID-19 False Information", IC2S2 2022, accepted, July 2022
    5. Junichi Yamagishi and Isao Echizen, "Deepfake Video Detection", CES 2021, January 2021
    6. Jiayu Chen, Tasuku Igarashi, "Overcoming choice homophily under wealth disparities in dynamic social networks.", 5th Australian Social Network Analysis Conference, Novemver 2020
    7. Jiayu Chen, Tasuku Igarashi, "Do Well and Have Well: Favorable Behavior Breeds Rich-Poor Cooperation.", 32nd Association for Psychological Science Annual Convention, June 2020

    Media coverage(Press release/ News release)

    Media coverage(Online articles)

    1. Junichi Yamagishi, Forbes, Analyzing The Rise Of Deepfake Voice Technology, May 10, 2021
    2. Kazutoshi Sasahara, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Model captures how polarization emerges on social media during political campaigns, December 20, 2020

    Media coverage(TV / Radio)

    Media coverage(Newspapers)

    Media coverage(Others)

    Patents

    Awards

    Others

    1. K. Miyazaki, T. Uchiba, K. Tanaka, and K. Sasahara, "The Strategy Behind Anti-Vaxxers’ Reply Behavior on Social Media", submitted, Preprint